Transition: The Role of Senior Professionals and Scholars
Seminar Held in Windsor Club
September 20 - 24, 2004
Heinrich Boll Foundation
Horn of Africa Regional Office
peace conference in Kenya is at its final stage with the expectation that
a transitional national government will be formed in the next fortnight.
The Somali people welcome the progress made so far and hope that their
nightmare will soon come to an end. These good tidings are, nonetheless,
accompanied by the fact that the formal process has been dominated by
self-interest and machinations of power sharing. The cost of this is has
been the marginalization of the country's most civic and skilled citizens
who could have made vital contribution to peace-making through formal
channels. Consequently, this group of non-partisan Somalis whose sole
interest is the restoration of peace, reconciliation, and democratic and
effective national government have gathered here to analyze the challenges
of the transition and how both Somalis and their well wishers can best
tackle those impediments effectively. This cohort has committed themselves
to coordinate their efforts in order to productively engage with civic-minded
citizens and others to insure that the transition is as successful as
it could be.
examining of those challenges, we have come to the conclusion that this
first phase of the transition should focus all efforts on the following
peace process which is expected to produce a national transitional government
has not advanced beyond power-sharing. We think that the transitional
institutions will come to knot unless there is genuine reconciliation,
both at the political and social levels. Reconciliation and restoration
of law and order are intertwined; they will determine the effectiveness
of the resuscitated institutions in meeting the need for security and
basic needs. Thus, we think it absolutely imperative that every effort
should be made to invest heavily in reconciliation and security. These
two areas of the transitions form the scaffolding of the new era. Efforts
to induce successful reconciliation and security must be rooted in a critical
understanding of Somali history and tradition in the context of the speedily
changing global order. The specific strategies, mechanism, actors, and
organizations deployed to ensure sustainable reconciliation and security
must be Somali drivens. The role of the international community should
be to support and compliment Somali initiatives and promote Somali ownership.
We are pleased
to know that a preliminary agenda has been set in the form of the "Rapid
Assistance Program," and appreciate the anticipatory thinking of
key members of the international community in taking this initiative.
However, we hold that the "RAP" has important shortcomings that
would need to be immediately rectified. Two such inadequacies are: the
absence of Somali participation in the formulation of the program and
the dominance of international NGOs/agencies in the implementation of
identified a number of issues that need to be addressed in the short and
medium term, and propose specific recommendations that are enlisted below
under each priority area. Six key recommendations are:
1. The immediate
creation of a national civic forum, a platform for critical public debate
on ideas and issues relevant to the transition and beyond.
2. For the National Reconciliation Commission to fruitfully accomplish
its objects, it ought to be autonomous, and its members must be people
of impeccable credibility and non-partisan stance.
3. The political actors must demonstrate their commitment to the process
by handing over all of their heavy weapons to designated authorities.
4. Insist that the new transitional regime is made of a small cluster
of imminent portfolios [no more than a dozen]. Competence and a record
of integrity, among others, ought to be used as criteria for each appointment.
5. The peace process must heavily invest in the massive job creation to
jumpstart the economy and create constructive alternative livelihoods
for young men and women.
6. Re-build the educational infrastructure on the basis of initiatives
developed by Somalis already engaged in education. This will include the
capacity to publish textbooks in the country.
7. Rehabilitate medical facilitates, training institutions, and heavily
invest in the prevention of diseases, such as malaria, TB and HIV/AIDs.
A more detailed
outline of the six major areas identified is in Annex 1. This section
is a summary of the challenges and proposed strategic interventions and
a. After the ugly civil war the reconciliation of the warring parties
and the reconciliation of all the various antagonists [communities, clans,
subclans, etc.] is imperative
b. Adopting the South African Truth and Reconciliation model is
not viable, under the present circumstances in Somalia, for the following
i. Most of the warring parties and all antagonists have joined the peace
process and are active in the formation of the Transitional Federal Government
ii. The repercussions of a televised voluntary public confession of crimes
committed, in a Somali context, needs further careful study.
c. Adopting the Rwandan and Bosnian models of setting up an International
Criminal Court to try people who have joined the peace process and are
part of the Transitional Federal Government is also not practical.
a. Support the political reconciliation process that is ongoing
in Nairobi. This process has to succeed in order to go to the next phase
of the reconciliation process.
i. Help in defining the composition and agenda of the National Reconciliation
ii. This committee has to be totally autonomous while conducting its work
and in the financial management of the resources made at its disposal.
iii. Members must be prominent personalities who are beyond reproach,
competent, with integrity, not affiliated with any political group, and
not engaged nor employed in any of the current political institutions.
Facilitate a Social Reconciliation program between the various clans and
iv. Establish a social reconciliation committee in every region of the
country. Each committee will be headed by a member of the National Reconciliation
committee [as defined in step a]
v. Focus on the major antagonists and provide a forum for all groups to
air their grievances and or express repentance, and encourage traditional
compensation approaches towards those victimized.
vi. Uphold the "Return of all properties to their rightful owners"
principle and the payment of reparations whenever applicable.
vii. Create an Elders committee to ensure that these Social Reconciliation
efforts are ongoing
Both the National Reconciliation Committee and the regional Social Reconciliation
Committees will be guided by the Somali, Islamic and universal human rights
values in their reconciliation efforts.
Create social programs that enhance both the Political Reconciliation
process and the Social Reconciliation process. Specifically programs that
make use of the media, poetic and song compositions, social events, and
The ownership of the reconciliation process and its financial management
must be in the hands of Somalis. These committees will be using the advice
and expertise of the international community in order to accomplish their
The massacres, crimes against humanity, and human rights violations that
took place in Somalia are very grave will be deferred to the elected Somali
parliamentary government as soon as the transitional period is over. This
elected body will decide what model is appropriate to bring those who
committed these crimes to justice.
Causes of Insecurity
Spread of arms all over the
country. The arms is on the hands of the populace
Lack of reconciliation among
the warring factions
Consistent looting and misappropriation
of properties belonging to innocent civilians
Poverty, joblessness and economic
hardship in both urban and rural areas
Lack of education for the young
Grievances and mistrust among
the clans resulting from the civil war
Naturally occurring drought
generally causes sever shortage of water and pasture in rural areas, thus
creating a conducive environment for violence
Lack of law and order
Warring and political factions
Business community militias
Freelancers of militias
Reconciliation: adapt the recommendations
from the reconciliation committee
Disarmament: The first priority
is to collect heavy weapons from:
a) Factions, b) Business community, 3) Islamic courts, and 4) Clans. This
will be followed by the small weapons. For arms to be withdrawn from the
above mentioned players, compensation packages will be required.
rehabilitation and reintegration of the various militiamen
Restoring the re-establishment
of the police forces to maintain law and order
Return properties held illegally
to its owners
Programmed plan with the aim
of reducing conflicts resulting from water and pasture scarcity in rural
Top priority must be given to
The business community must
register and license all of their small arms that might be used for business
The UN should enforce the monitoring
of arm embargo to Somalia
For safe and secure environment,
de-mining work should be carried out
are no different from other societies in that none could meet its basic
collective needs [ranging from security to environmental and economic
well being to education and scientific advancement] without an effective
While this is uniform across the modern world, the imperative is greatest
among late-developing and, therefore, brittle societies. The state is
not and cannot be everything but its absence is a form of acute social
homelessness. The condition of the past fifteen years testifies to the
cost of having no national governance. Another decade or more of the present
situation is a horrible option to contemplate - Somalia will sink deeper
into further retailing of identities, physical and material insecurity,
and international irrelevance, contempt, and abuse.
been a series of national reconciliation meetings to rebuild the Somali
state. In this latest attempt, it was agreed upon to adopt a federal system.
The Transitional Federal Government is expected to design the nature and
operational features of Somali federalism. Despite the fact that the type
of government to be adapted was highly contentious, this decision seals
for the time being the form that such a government would take.
of governance underscores the sharing of power between regions/provinces
and a central authority. Though the nuances vary, in a federal system,
the central government solely designs and manages areas such as defense,
foreign policy, and fiscal policy. Moreover, it shares with the regions
responsibilities like revenue generation, education, transportation and
communication, heath care, law and order, judiciary, public administration,
etc. Despite the distribution of power between the central structures
and the provinces, at its best a mark of democratic autonomy for the latter,
Federalism also carries some potential dangers. First, and particularly
in the current climate, there is the difficulty of establishing legitimate
provinces. Where does one draw the boundaries? Second, what becomes of
equity/equality in those potential regions that will house within their
zones different kin groups? What would be the lines of accountability
between the province and the federal state? What about the financial and
bureaucratic burden of this level of new administrative structure?
A key and immediate challenge of the new state is to initiate the re-cultivation
of the ethos of collective belonging and solidarity among the Somali people.
In addition, we offer two categories of specific recommendations: one
for the Somalis and the other for the international community.
the Somalis ought to do:
a. Summon a spirit of repentance. The disorder that has engulfed
Somalia is a manifestation of individual and collective failures of immense
proportions. Justice should be the keynote for the new order yet scores
ought not to be settled through vengeance. On the contrary, what is needed
is the courage on the part of individuals and communities to ask for forgiveness
and, by the same token extend it to others. Such an attitude could help
Somalis imagine forward the people that they may become and embolden the
new state to kindle an even stronger sense of "asabiya" or "Soomaalinimo".
b. Establish a lean and agile national structure that can absorb
and respond to the vicissitudes of everyday life, as well as quickly focus
on the most important of the urgent national needs. The new portfolios
of the transitional regime should be no more than a dozen, the antithesis
of the logic behind the quantitative formation of the new Parliament.
Moreover, the new transitional government ought to re-visit the wisdom
of a national parliament with 275 seats. The objective should be to tailor
the total number to a sum commensurate with the Somali population and
the reality of the resources of the country.
c. Stress the criteria of integrity and competence in the creation
of the apparatuses of the state, particularly leadership, administrative
personnel, and the judiciary.
a. Insist that the new transitional regime is made of a small cluster
of critical portfolios [no more than a dozen]. Competence and a record
of integrity, among others, ought to be used as criteria for each appointment.
b. Investment in the establishment of the forces of order and justice.
c. Investment in a non-partisan and independent civic forum for the generation
of new ideas that will trigger constructive debate and discussion during
the transition period. This could become the nucleus for a new public
d. Carry out an inventory of highly qualified Somalis who have
earned degrees from internationally accredited post secondary institutions.
e. Actively promote the recognition of the new order by the rest of the
sector has been devastated by the civil war and the enduring legacy of
under investment in the productive sectors. Interventions during the transitional
period will require addressing not only immediate issues of recovery,
but also the structural factors of underinvestment and inappropriate regulation
of the sector which have exacerbated by the statelessness.
Livestock export ban
Poor veterinary services
Collapse of agriculture infrastructure
Insufficient crop food production
Illegal and inappropriate fishing
Dearth of infrastructure for
Tree cutting and charcoal exportation
Dumping-off toxic waste in
Low quality and exploitative
prices of imported basic commodities
Waste of agricultural products
and high value natural resources
Explore new markets for livestock
and establish internationally recognized animal health export certification
Revive the veterinary delivery
Rehabilitate and reconstruct
Improve agricultural input
supply and develop appropriate technology transfer services
Re-introduce regulatory mechanism
for the fishing sector
Ensure international support
for marine protection and monitoring and control of fishing pirates
Develop effective infrastructure
for fishing communities
Ban on charcoal export and
introduction of tree planting practices among rural communities
Introduce regulatory mechanisms
for quality control of imported commodities
Encourage the private sector
to invest in the industrial process of local products
Although there are tangible indicators of success for a system that is
attempting to resurrect, the challenges that still remain unaddressed
cannot be coped in this paper. However, among the endless list of challenges
Access to the education is one of the biggest challenges for the Somali
society due to the limited available service providers and the affordability
resulted from the economic and security problem. Even with the limited
available educational institutions unbalanced distribution is observed
in terms of urban vs. rural, general education with technical and the
After the access, the other challenge is the quality of the education
both in the hard side of the buildings, equipment, teaching and learning
materials and curriculum documents and also in the soft side of human
resource development, policies, regulations and practices.
Determining who owns the education is another import challenge. Is it
a community owned as in the traditional or pre-colonial era or owned by
the state as in the military rule? How a partnership could be established
between of the state and community to share the responsibilities and the
Another big challenge is the relevance of the education to the personal
aspirations and the national goals and its deep relation to the livelihood.
a. Involve the Somali citizens in discussing publicly what type
of education system will be adopted in the post conflict Somalia. During
the transition, the citizen engagement can be achieved through organizing
and providing space for public debates, national dialogue for education
and may be even a national conference for education.
b. Setting the education as a national agenda where a long lasting
peace, reconciliation and development cannot be achieved without setting
a proper system of education that can transform the individuals to responsible
c. Start building the education system on the available initiatives
developed by the Somali institutions in the post conflict situation and
benefit from the available resources and expertise.
d. Address the issue of the ownership by forging real partnership
between the state and existing community owned education.
Prepare planned and balanced intervention to address the issue of the
access to education, in order to succeed a sustainable and substantial
enrolment rate for the primary education.
f. Quick and planned intervention is required to train teachers
and educational managers to fill the wide gap of shortage of teachers
created by obsolescence and aging.
g. Special programs should be initiated for the disadvantaged groups
in the society, specially the disabled, adult and women.
a. Destruction of health facilities, such as hospitals, clinics,
x-ray and lab facilities, and health manpower training institutions, such
as Somali University Medical School, nursing and other paramedical training
b. Shortage of health manpower due to emigration and deaths.
c. Lack of adequate and quality drugs and medical supplies
d. High morbidity and mortality of treatable diseases, such as
TB, Malaria, waterborne diseases and injuries from fire arms and mines
e. Lack of preventive services, such as immunizeable childhood
diseases, HIV/AIDS prevention services, and safe drinking water and sanitation
1. Provision of essential prevention services
b. Expanded program on immunization (EPI)
c. Injury prevention services, such judicial services and education
2. Rehabilitation of health manpower training institutions (Somali
University Medical school, Nursing and paramedical training schools in
3. Support newly emerged health manpower training institutions
(Mogadishu University, Amoud University, Edna and Bossasso nursing schools,
4. Regulate drug importation and distribution
5. Provide safe drinking water
6. Establish TB, Malaria, Schistosomiasis and Diarrhoeal disease
THE SOMALI CIVIC FORUM
The Somali Civic Forum (SCF) is an independent, non-partisan organization
founded by a cohort of Somali intellectuals that met on September 20th
- 24th 2004 in Nairobi, Kenya. SCF's mission is to generate and disseminate
creative ideas that will assist in the establishment of a democratic political
order, durable peace, justice, rule of law and sustainable development.
A. The generation of ideas relevant to the Transitional Federal
Government's mandated period and beyond. These ideas will become the basis
for new public debates and discussions on the welfare of the Somali people.
B. The Dissemination of these ideas through various media and publications.
C. The persistent and positive engagement of the Transitional Federal
Government, the Somali society, and the international community, particularly
those who are interested in the welfare of the Somali Republic.
A Steering Committee of six people from both inside and outside the country
has been chosen for the duration of one year. The Steering Committee has
been mandated to:
a. Choose a coordinator.
b. Put together simple and compact bylaws to govern the structure
and functions of SCF.
c. Setup and coordinate a few foundational set of activities to
take place between November 1st 2004 and November 1st 2005.
d. Set criteria for membership
LIST OF PARTICIPANTS
consultant. She was the regional finance manager for an international
NGO which provides air transport, communication and information technology
to all humanitarian organizations working in Iraq. In this capacity, she
designed and implemented financial management systems for two offices
based in Iraq and Jordan. Kamar earned her MBA from the Monterey Institute
of International Studies in California. She worked in the Africa and Central
Asia regions of the World Bank as a consultant on poverty assessment projects,
and conducted gender analysis. She has also a Masters degree in Peace
Studies with emphasis on International Conflict Resolution from the University
of Notre Dame in Indiana.
Yusuf Ahmed Nur, PhD
Department of Business and Economics
State University of New York
He has a PhD in Strategic Management from Indiana University, Bloomington,
Indiana, USA. He is a professor of Strategic Management and International
Business at the State University of New York, Brockport, NY, USA. His
research has been published in both areas and have presented at both the
Academy of Management and Academy of International Business, the two most
prestigious USA associations in my areas of research.
Abdi Dahir " Shell" BA
SHELL & BP OIL Company from 1967-1972 in various positions lastly
being the Manager of Berbera Installation in.
Served as Somali senior Civil Servant & Politician with various positions
lately holding the position of Assistant to the Minister of Youth &
Worked with USAIDTIPCO as Private Sector Development Program Manager in
Somalia. Served my community as Director of Somali Relief & Rehabilitation
Association (SORRA) in USA.
Served as member of Somali Olympic Committee from 1967 to present.
An activist with Somali Civil Society and at present Chairman of Somali
Revival Council as well as Executive Member of Somali Intellectuals Forum
( SIF ).
Abdulkadir Aden Abdulle
Ingegneria Electtrotecnica Universita' La Sapienza, Roma. 1967.
Served as a Minister of Public Works.
Worked as a director general, Ente Nazionale Energia Eletterica.
Technical director Societa' Elettroindustriale Somala
Now businessman and Civil Society Activist
Jama Mohamed Ghalib
the Somali civil Society, participant of the Somali National Reconciliation
Retired police general, former chief of national police force, cabinet
minister of interior, labour, local government and transport.
Had legal training and experience, and a public notary in Mogadishu and
Ahmed I. Samatar, Ph D
Professor and Dean, Macalester College, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA.
A scholar and author of five books and over thirty scholarly articles
published in refereed and academicals journals
Ibrahim Sheikh Mohamed, MD, FMGMS,
in internal medicine and cardiology.
Former lecturer in Somali National University, faculty of medicine.
Lecturer in Mogadishu University, faculty of nurse.
Activist in Somalia Civil Society.
Degree: M.Sc. Agronomy, Nottingham University, U.K. 1989-1991
Specialization: Food Security, Crop and Livestock Production
o Former Dean of the Faculty of Agriculture (1979-1983)
o Part-time Professor at the Faculty of Agriculture, Florence, Italy (1992-1994)
o USAID's Farming Early Warning System (FEWS) Country Representative for
o USAID's Farming Early Warning System (FEWS) Country Representative for
Somalia and Djibouti (2001-2002)
o FAO Somalia Program Advisor (2003-Present)
o P.O. Box 6630, 00100 GPO, Nairobi, Kenya
o Telephone: 0721570619
o Email: email@example.com
Degree: Ph.D., University of Guelph, Canada,
Specialization: Plant Breeding and Crop Production
o Former Coordinator for Sorghum Improvement in Somalia (1985-1988)
o Former Director Central Agriculture Research Centre (CARS), (1989-1990)
o Research Scientist, Agriculture Canada/Canadian Tobacco Research Foundation
o 87 Clara Crescent, London, ON N6E 3G5, Canada
o Telephone: (519) 582-2370 Ext. 257
o Email. firstname.lastname@example.org
Ali Shiekh Ahmed Abubakar, Ph D
professor in King Saudi University, Riyadh Saudi Arabia.
President of Mogadishu University.
Author of the roots of the current crisis in Somalia. And published other
books and articles about the history of Somalia and horn of Africa.
Barre Muse, M Sc Economics and Finance.
Center for Research and Dialogue (CRD), Mogadishu, Somalia.
Lecturer, Mogadishu University, Somalia.
Worked in humanitarian, development and policy analysis in Somalia and
North Eastern Kenya with local, international and UN agencies.
Contact: Mobile: +2521 503303 Mogadishu Somalia
Sheikh Abdulkadir, LLB.
Ag. Chairman of Formal Private Education Network in Somalia (FPENS).
EMBA fellow as an executive Manager in Maastricht School of Management
(MSM) and Eastern and Southern African Management Institute (ESAMI)
Board of Director, Somali Institute of Management and Administration Development
Worked in the development and education programs in Somalia since 1992,
with international and local organizations in Somalia.
Mohamed Abdi Mohamed -Gandhi,
Ph D Geology, Ph D Anthropology/History and HDR.
Former in charge Researcher, IDR Paris.
Awarded international Loreat From French Academy.
Served as a senior program advisor UNDP Somalia in DDR.
Lead Consultant in Mapping the Somali Civil Society.
Chaired the Technical Committee in Art Somali Peace process and member
of the civil society in the Somali Peace and Reconciliation Conference
Published eight books and edited three studies, and published more than
40 Scientific articles in academic journals
Mohamed Gedi Qayad, MD,``MSc, MPH, MSPH.
apidemioligist with the Goergia division of public health, USA, former
Vice Chairman of the department of community medicine in the Facult of
Medicine in Mogadishu Somalia.
A CDC fellow in biostatistics and quantitative epidemiology in tuberculoses.
Experienced in the area of public health for both developing and developed
countries and worked as a consultant for WHO Afghanistan
E. Abdirizak Haji Husein,
Prime Minister 1964 to 1967 as an elected MP.
Minister of Interior 1960 to 1962.
Minister of Public Work, post and Telecommunications 1962 to 1964.
Devoted to the peace and reconciliation of Somalia.
Veterinary Scientist and Livestock Consultant, development educationist,
project Management and Environmentalist.
Field veterinarian, livestock consultant and trainer.
Senior lecturer/Researcher, Faculty of animal husbandry and veterinary
medicine, Somali National University
Project management in Emergency relief and Rehabilitation activities in
Education researcher, UNDP Somalia.
Jabril I. Abdulle, Double B A (hons) and M A
Center for Research and Dialogue (CRD) Mogadishu Somalia and program coordinator
for WSPI Mogadishu.
Engaged as a consultant in conflict mapping, reconciliation and community
development over ten years in different countries including Jamaica, Bermuda,
Sweden, Canada USA and others.
I. Samater, Ph D
of Geography and global studies, University of Minnesota.
Author of over 35 scientific articles and three books. His book the African
Miracle was the finalist for Herskovitz award for African Studies in North
America in 2000. Elected Director of the African Studies Association,
1999 - 2003. He was also, a Fulbright scholar in Botswana and Ethiopia
He served as an advisor to South Africa's Human Sciences Research Council.
at Seneca College of Applied Arts and Technology, Toronto, Canada. From
Aug. 2002 to May 2003, he taught at Brock University, St. Catharines,
Canada. He is a Ph.D. Candidate in the History Department at York University,
Canada and has published on the history of the Benadir coast in the nineteenth
century. He is currently working on a two volume book based on the 19th
century court records of Brava.
Mohamed Bafo, M Sc, B Sc in Agriculture
in Agricultural 1984 to 1990 and engaged in humanitarian and development
work with international organizations during the Civil War.
Active in voluntary contribution in Civil Society initiatives aimed at